summary of sequence 1 and 2/translation UFC 2ème années

Summary of Sequence 01

Compétence générale visée:

explain the differences between technical and legal translation and interpretation

This lesson serves as is an introduction for you as a student of Legal English to translation in order to develop their understanding of translation issues in both directions: English/Arabic and Arabic/English. The importance of this lesson lies in helping you define translation, its types, purposes and constraints, explain the differences between translation and interpretation, present the main theoretical approaches to translation and finally use practical translation tools (dictionaries, glossaries, corpus, software, etc.). The lesson also features practical exercises following the theoretical explanation to test your understanding of the themes presented earlier. This will enable you to: 1) develop your understanding of translation in a wider context and to give you the necessary notions to improve your translation practice later on and 2) apply your understanding of these topics to help you move further to translate lexical units between English and Arabic.

Legal translation or as Mellinkoff (1963 , p. 3) calls “the language of law” can be easily described as the process of translating documents, like witness statements, contracts, filed patents, transcripts, official reports and financial papers. The legal field remains undeniably crucial in fostering collaboration and facilitating business transactions among individuals and institutions on a scale.

Dear student,

Tough Challenges of Translating Legal Documents

These expressions have the same meaning in English and Arabic.

Non-equivalence (NoE) occurs when only few or none of the important aspects of EnglishArabic legal concepts correspond or if there is no functional equivalent in the target legal system for a specific ST concept. For examples, the Islamic terms and concepts such as

Al Ethm ,االثم Fatwa فتوى that mean in English Sin and Verdict respectively. The English terms Home Office means “ ”الداخلية وزارةthe Ministry of the Interior.

summary lesson 1

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2. Key Differences between English and Arabic

  • Translation: Vital for bridging language and cultural gaps.
  • Emphasized: Structural and grammatical disparities.
  • Significance: Context and cultural nuances.
  • Skilled Translators: Language proficiency and cultural awareness.

1.3. Challenges in Translation

  • Challenges: Linguistic differences, cultural expressions, pronouns, time references, idiomatic expressions, religious texts, poetry, and honorifics.
  • Requirements: Linguistic expertise, cultural understanding, sensitivity.
  • Goal: Accurate meaning conveyance.

1.4. Foundation Methods of Translation

  • Methods: Literal translation, dynamic equivalence, transcreation.
  • Literal Translation: Accuracy, suitable for technical content.
  • Dynamic Equivalence: Conveying meaning, adapting to the audience.
  • Transcreation: Creative approach, for artistic works and branding.

1.5. Techniques and Strategies of English-Arabic Translation

  • Approaches: Direct Translation Techniques and Indirect (Oblique) Translation Techniques.
  • Direct Techniques: Straightforward transfers, e.g., Borrowing, Calque, Transliteration.
  • Indirect Techniques: Adaptation for linguistic and cultural requirements, e.g., Modulation, Equivalence, Adaptation.
  • Mastery: Essential for accurate and culturally appropriate translations.


  • Explored English-Arabic translation techniques.
  • Focused on Direct and Indirect Translation Techniques.
  • Direct techniques: Straightforward transfers of words or phrases.
  • Indirect techniques: Adaptation for better cultural context.

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