The main features of the Norman Invasion

The main features of the Norman Invasion are :

a) The Norman conquest of England, led by William the Conqueror (r. 1066-1087 CE) was achieved over a five-year period from 1066 CE to 1071 CE. Hard-fought battles, castle building, land redistribution, and scorched earth tactics ensured that the Normans were here to stay. And the main features of the Norman Invasion are :

b) The Anglo-Saxon landowning elites were almost totally replaced by Normans who took their lands and properties.

c) The ruling system was centralized with power and wealth being held in much fewer Norman hands.

d) The majority of Anglo-Saxon bishops were replaced with Norman ones and many religious headquarters were relocated to urban centers.

e) Norman castles were introduced which reshapedwarfarein England, reducing the necessity for and risk of large-scale field engagements.

f) The system of feudalism developed as William gave out lands to his vassals in return for military service and protection in case of war

g) Manorsand large farms developed and spread further where laborers worked on their lord’s estate for his benefit. They were called serfs.

h) The north of England was devastated for a long time following William’s constant attacks against the probable remaining resistance of the Anglo-Saxons of the area in 1069-70 CE.

i) Domesday Book, a detailed and systematic catalog of the land and wealth in England was compiled in 1086-7 CE.

j) The contact and especiallytradebetween England and European countries greatly increased.

k) The two countries of France and England became historically intertwined, initially due to the crossover of land ownership, i.e. Norman nobles holding lands in both countries.

l) The syntax and vocabulary of the Anglo-Saxon Germanic language were significantly influenced by the French language and a considerable number of French words were introduced to the English language.

m) The French language was designated as the language of the church, schools, and literature and the language of the elite. However, the English language was spoken by the English common people only.

n) Norman genius was also expressed in architecture. Saxon buildings had mostly been wooden structures. Massivestone castles, churches,cathedrals, and monasteries were erected, these imposing structures again clearly demonstrating just who was in charge. Richmond Caste 11th c, Rochester Castle 12th c, and Windsor Castles 11th century are among the surviving Normans castles.

o) The Bayeux Tapestry was probably commissioned in the 1070s by Bishop Odo of Bayeux, half-brother of William the Conqueror. It is over 70 meters long and although it is called a tapestry it is embroidery, The Tapestry tells the story of the events surrounding the conquest of England by the Duke of Normandy.

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